Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson
The State of Israel was established in 1948. However, thousands of years before that, there was Jewish sovereignty over the Land of Israel.
In 70 CE, the Jews were exiled from the Land of Israel by the Romans. For the next 1878 years, control of Israel changed hands numerous times. Despite her tumultuous history„ there has been a constant Jewish presence in the Land of Israel since the times of Joshua.
Zionism exists because Israel remained the homeland of the Jews, despite their exile.
You’re correct, Zionism is the creation, development and protection of a Jewish State/homeland in the Land of Israel. Zionism was needed to re-establish a sovereign Jewish state in the Land of Israel, while the Jews were still exiled in the Diaspora.
Theodor Herzl met with the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (who at the time, controlled the region in which the Land of Israel is found), in order to appeal for the creation of a Jewish state in the Land of Israel. His quest was unsuccessful.
The region in which the Land of Israel is found is often called Palestine. This term became popular after the Roman conquest of the Land of Israel. The Romans renamed the area Palaestina
in order to minimise the Jewish connection of the Land of Israel.
Note: There is no connection between the ancient Philistines and those who call themselves Palestinians, today.
Please take the time to read the following links.
Today is the 10th of Tevet, a fast that commemorates the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar during the First Temple Period. This culminated in the destruction of the First Temple on the 9th of Av, the Babylonian Exile and the Babylonian conquest of the Southern Kingdom.
Today, for the first time since the Destruction of the Second Temple and the start of the Roman exile, Jerusalem is once again whole, and in Jewish Hands.
Today, when we mourn the ancient siege of Jerusalem and the Destruction of the Temple - we can also be grateful, that we have a Jewish Jerusalem that is waiting for us with open arms.
Today, which is also used as a “general Kaddish day” for Holocaust victims - we can be grateful that we have the State of Israel - a sovereign homeland; something that Holocaust victims didn’t have to protect them, and something that they never got to see whilst living.
While Asarah B’tevet is a day of commemoration and mourning, it is also day which gives us the opportunity to think about renewal, the phoenix rising from the ashes and be grateful for what we have today - the State of Israel and Jerusalem.
This Dvar Torah is almost like a continuation or a Part 2 of my Dvar Torah from Parshat Vayeshev. The link is below, so you can read it, if you haven’t already.
In this week’s Parsha, 70 souls from the Jacob’s house go down to Egypt in what is considered the beginning of the first exile.This exile is foretold to Abraham, earlier in the Book of Genesis.
וַיֹּאמֶר לְאַבְרָם יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע כִּי גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא לָהֶם וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה:
And He said to Abram, “You shall surely know that your seed will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and they will enslave them and oppress them, for four hundred years
The word used to describe Abraham’s descendants in exile is גר - “stranger” from the root ג.ו.ר . This root denotes temporary sojourning and is appropriately the base for the Hebrew word, stranger.
The exile in Egypt was supposed to be hard and uncomfortable. Abraham’s descendants were not to assimilate into Egyptian society, rather they would constantly have the stigma of being a Hebrew, they would constantly be different, be strangers. Egypt was not to be their home forever, rather, a stop-off on the way to the Land of Israel. Just as Egypt was a temporary living space, this exile, was also temporary.
This is seen even in the prophecy in Genesis, as the chapter continues
בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כָּרַת יְ־הֹוָ־ה אֶת אַבְרָם בְּרִית לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ נָתַתִּי אֶת הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת
. On that day, the Lord formed a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your seed I have given this land,
As seen above, immediately after being told of his descendant’s exile and status as “strangers” in Egypt - a temporary living space; Abraham is told that his descendants will be given a land which will be theirs eternally, permanently.
In this weeks Parsha, Joseph’s brothers approach Pharaoh and tell him
. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל פַּרְעֹה לָגוּר בָּאָרֶץ בָּאנוּ
And they said to Pharaoh, “We have come to sojourn in the land,
Here, the brothers use the same root ג.ו.ר, denoting sojourning, temporary living. The brothers did not intend to remain in Egypt forever, and were content to remain “strangers” in Egypt whilst living there temporarily. In response to the brothers’ request, they were given the Land of Goshen, a fertile, comfortable area where they would be able to shepherd easily.
Later on in the chapter, the narrative says
. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּאֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן וַיֵּאָחֲזוּ בָהּ וַיִּפְרוּ וַיִּרְבּוּ מְאֹד
And Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt in the land of Goshen, and they acquired property in it, and they were prolific and multiplied greatly.
Two different verbs are used here י.ש.ב- denoting permanent living and א.ח.ז which also means settling and has a connotation of being tied to the land.
This verse shows us, that the group of 70 that came down to Egypt changed their intention of temporarily living there, and grew comfortable- wanting to live there permanently. Furthermore, they knew the Redemption would not be during their lifetimes, so they had no qualms about putting down their roots in Egypt.
Moreover, the second verb in the verse וַיֵּאָחֲזוּ with the root א.ח.ז shows the connection that the Israelites had to the Land of Egypt. They felt like they were held to the land and bound to it - a feeling that should only be felt towards the Land of Israel which is our אחזה (contextually translated as portion, but has the same meaning as its root - being ‘bound’ to the land). As the Israelites settled in the Land of Goshen, they permanently endangered themselves. They set the foundation of the danger that their descendants would betray their heritage and forget their true ancestry.
Today, many of us in the Diaspora have seem to forgotten that our exile is only temporary.
Rather, we have placed down roots and have settled in our host countries, easily assimilating.
Rather than being strangers and only living in the Diaspora temporarily, we have become comfortable, made these places our permanent homes and become “bound” to these foreign lands.
In the 21st century we not only still have the commandment and the responsibility to make Aliyah, but we have the opportunity and privilege to do so. Today, when the Land of Israel is in Jewish Hands after 2000 years of exile, we should be enthusiastic to become Israeli citizens, live permanently in our eternal homeland, be “bound to it” and contribute to our diverse society.
I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah; and even though he may tarry, nonetheless, I wait every day for his coming.
אני מאמין באמונה שלמה בביאת המשיח: ואף על פי שיתמהמה אם כל זה אחכה לו בכל יום שיבוא
— Maimonides’ Thirteen Principles of Faith